Language Learning Resources

Brown, A., & Council on Communications and Media Executive Committee. (2011). Media use by children younger than 2 years. Pediatrics, 128(5), 1040–1045.

Byeon, H., & Hong, S. (2015). Relationship between television viewing and language delay in toddlers: Evidence from a Korea national cross-sectional survey. PloS One, 10(3).

Chonchaiya, W., & Pruksananonda, C. (2008). Television viewing associates with delayed language development. Acta Pædiatrica (Oslo), 97(7), 977-982.

Christakis, D. A., Gilkerson, J., Richards, J. A., Zimmerman, F. J., Garrison, M. M., Xu, D., Gray, S., & Yapanel, U. (2009). Audible television and decreased adult words, infant vocalizations, and conversational turns: A population-based study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(6), 554-558.

Council on Communications and Media. (2013). Children, Adolescents, and the Media. Pediatrics, 132 (5) 958-961; DOI:

Council on Communications and Media. (2016). Media and young minds. Pediatrics (Evanston), 138(5).

Duch, H., Fisher, E. M., Ensari, I., Font, M., Harrington, A., Taromino, C., Yip, J., & Rodriguez, C. (2013). Association of screen time use and language development in hispanic toddlers: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Clinical Pediatrics, 52(9), 857-865.

Golinkoff, R. M., Can, D. D., Soderstrom, M., & Hirsh-Pasek, K. (2015). (Baby) talk to me: The social context of infant-directed speech and its effects on early language acquisition. Current Directions in Psychological Science : A Journal of the American Psychological Society, 24(5), 339-344.

Krcmar, M., & Cingel, D. P. (2019). Do young children really learn best from the use of direct address in children’s television? Media Psychology, 22(1), 152-171.

Krcmar, M., Grela, B., & Lin, K. (2007). Can toddlers learn vocabulary from television? an experimental approach. Media Psychology, 10(1), 41-63.

Kuhl, P. K. (2011). Early language learning and literacy: Neuroscience implications for education. Mind, Brain and Education, 5(3), 128-142.

Kuhl, P. K., Tsao, F., & Liu, H. (2003). Foreign-language experience in infancy: Effects of short-term exposure and social interaction on phonetic learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – PNAS, 100(15), 9096-9101.

Lightbrown, P. M. and Spada, N. (2013). How Languages are Learned. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Linebarger, D. L., & Walker, D. (2005). Infants’ and toddlers’ television viewing and language outcomes. The American Behavioral Scientist (Beverly Hills), 48(5), 624-645.

Niklas, F., Cohrssen, C., & Tayler, C. (2016). The sooner, the better: Early reading to children. SAGE Open, 6(4).

Sachs, J., Bard, B., & Johnson, M. (1981). Language learning with restricted input: Case studies of two hearing children of deaf parents. Applied Psycholinguistics, 2(1), 33-54. doi:10.1017/S0142716400000643

Vygotsky, L. S., & Cole, M. (1978;1980). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.

Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C. (1984). Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior & Development, 7(1), 49-63.

Zimmerman, F. J., Christakis, D. A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2007). Television and DVD/Video viewing in children younger than 2 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 161(5), 473-479.